TYPES OF DOORS BASED ON MATERIAL OF MANUFACTURE
There are large varieties of doors and windows which can either be manufactured or are available in the market for ready fixing. Based on the material of manufacture, some of their types along with their main feature, advantages and disadvantages are given here to facilitate easy selection for the house owner.
1. TIMBER/WOOD DOORS
Traditionally, timber or wood as it is popularly known has been the mainstay for the manufacture of doors/windows. Its main advantage has been local availability of material and the ease with which it can be made by the local carpenters.
Presently large varieties of wood are available in the market and its selection should be made based on the properties of longevity and the budget of the house owner. Although they can be used for all locations in the house, they are best placed for exterior locations.
Timber is most commonly being used for making of doors/windows.
2. BATTENED AND LEDGED DOORS
Battened and ledged doors are the simplest form of doors and are in use since ages. Such doors consist of vertical wooden battens of the height of the door with about 35 mm thicknesses which are usually tongue and groove jointed. Usually three ledges (horizontal members) are provided, one each at the top and bottom and one in the middle.
Battened and ledged doors can also be either braced or braced and framed to provide rigidity and better appearance.
Such doors are commonly adopted for toilets, baths, WC etc and also in houses where economy is of prime consideration.
3. FRAMED AND PANELED DOORS
These types of doors and windows are most commonly provided in the houses. The frame for the door is made out of wood and the shutter panels out of timber, plywood, block board, hard board, etc. A number of designs can be made on the panels, thereby making such door quite decorative.
The panels can also be made out of glass. In cases where part of the door is in wooden panels and the remaining is of glass panels, the door is known as paneled and glazed.
Such doors have a flexibility of design which can look aesthetically pleasing.
The design can be made according to the requirement and location in the house.
The door frame for such types of doors can be made out of wood itself or of metal sections like steel etc.
4. FLUSH DOORS
A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or Medium Density Fiberboard fixed over timber frame which is comparatively light. The hollow core so obtained is often filled with a cardboard core material.
Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although with some variations they are also used as exterior doors in houses.
The frames for such doors can be made out of wood, steel etc, which can hold its weight. The doors are usually hinged along one side to allow the door to open in one direction only.
Flush doors are commonly provided in houses these days due to the reasons of economy, pleasing appearance, durability etc and are commonly available in the market.
While providing these doors for toilets, baths; the inner face of the door should be covered with aluminum sheets to provide protection against water.
Frames for such doors/windows can be made in any of the traditional manner.
5. GLASS DOORS
Glass is usually provided for doors and windows, mostly for paneling. However if the owner so desires, doors can be made out of glass for specific locations. Normally such doors are provided on the backside of the house as it provides unobstructed view of the backyard or garden.
Front doors made of glass are equally beautiful, but care should be taken to ensure both privacy and durability. Cut glass panels set into wooden frames are a frequent and beautiful option for front doors. Such doors are costly and require good maintenance.
They are usually heavier than other doors besides being costly.
6. STEEL DOORS
Steel or other such metal construction has been used for years as they are efficient and are a sturdy option for exterior and interior doors alike. These doors can be either be solid or hollow.
It has been found to be a good substitute for wood and is being used extensively for making frames. The frames can be made out of angles, Tee, channels or pressed steel plates. Holdfasts and hinges are normally welded to the frame in case of steel frames.
Normal shutters made out of wood etc can be fixed on these steel frames.
Steel frames are quite popular and are being used extensively for houses and other locations as they are economical than the conventional wooden frames.
Shutters can also be made out of Mild Steel (MS) sheets, welded or riveted to a frame of angle iron or channel section, properly braced.
Steel doors can also be made in high quality in cold rolled mild steel, precision engineered. They are long lasting requiring minimum maintenance. They are available in beautiful shades with various wood grain texturing.
These can invariably be used where security is of a greater concern.
7. PVC DOORS
PVC is a common term for the product called Poly Vinyl Chloride. It is basically a plastic material commonly used for making various products including water tanks, pipes, fittings etc for houses. The use of PVC for the manufacture of doors has become very popular and a large variety of the same are available in the market in different colours and designs.
The advantages of using PVC doors are that they are termite proof, durable, anti corrosive, light weight, moisture resistant etc. They are also easy to fabricate and install.
However they are not suited for entry doors as they are very light in weight, not weather proof like wooden or metal doors, also they cannot resist the harsh environmental conditions.
Such doors are available in the market and can prove to be economical when compared with wooden doors.
Nowadays windows are also being made out of PVC products and are available in the market.
8. FIBERGLASS DOORS
Fiberglass is a glass which is drawn into fibrous form and woven into cloth. It is strong, light & non-flammable and has a high tensile strength. Glass fibres bonded with resin that can be used to manufacture a range of .products including bathtubs, doors and windows etc.
Fiberglass is said to be one of the most hardened materials with relatively low maintenance costs as compared with wood and steel.
Fiberglass doors are expected to be stable as they do not warp, bow or twist. They are foam filled and offer good insulation properties.
They can also be painted as per design.
Doors and windows made out of fiberglass can be provided with wooden panels on the surface to improve upon the aesthetics. Doors made out of fiberglass can be used for both exterior and interior locations. The exterior doors have designer options such as beveled glass and door stiles.
These doors are available in the market to match any architectural style.
9. FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS DOORS
Fiber Reinforced Plastics popularly known as FRP is a general term relating to the reinforcement of plastic with fibrous glass. Due to its high strength it can be put to many uses including manufacture of doors. Typically, the tensile strength is about ten times that of PVC. FRP moulded doors are available in many colours and finishes including natural wood finish in the market. The standard door thicknesses are 30/35 mm and are available with fire retardant properties.
These doors can also have two leaves of 1.5 mm thickness. The leaves are moulded over a core material forming a sandwich panel.
Necessary wooden supports are provided for fixing the handles, locks, stoppers and other accessories. FRP doors are in good demand these days for use in modern houses.
10. ALUMINUM DOORS
Aluminum is a metal which has been put to a large number of uses due to being light in weight.
A large number of products made out of aluminum are available in the market including doors, windows, partitions, curtain walls etc.
Aluminum frames for doors and windows have the distinct advantage of resisting difficult environmental conditions. Being light in weight they transfer less loads to the foundations. Aluminum frames are not affected by termites and as such they are longer lasting.
Doors and windows made out of aluminum can be side hung or sliding and are suitable for exterior or interior locations.
Aesthetically they are quite pleasing and are quite economical in the long run.
11. BAMBOO-JUTE COMPOSITE DOORS
Bamboo is one of the fastest renewable plants with a maturity cycle of 3-4 years, making it a good natural resource compared to forest hardwoods. Bamboo offers good potential for processing it into composites as a wood substitute. Bamboo laminates could replace timber in many applications including for doors & windows and their frames etc.
One of the alternatives to wood product is the jute-coir composite board which can be utilized for the manufacture of doors. Natural hard fibres such as coir and jute impregnated with phenolic resins can be used for manufacturing these boards. Bamboo-jute composite doors have the advantage of being water resistant, corrosion resistant, termite resistant, eco-friendly, bio-degradable and cost effective.
Such doors are being manufactured by a number of entrepreneurs and can be easily adopted as a substitute for wooden or other type of doors in the house.